Great Empires of North America, Part 3: Colorado’s Urban Revolution

The Ancestral Puebloan city at Mesa Verde, Colorado.

From cliffside fortresses, they controlled a sprawling trade network — and hoarded wealth beyond dreams. Meet the merchant princes of the ancient Southwest.

When we hear terms like “invasion” and “first contact” in American history, we naturally think of European colonialism — and with good reason.

The Spanish arrival in New Mexico  devastated indigenous populations, disrupted regional trade, introduced horses and guns, and left the Southwest irreversibly transformed.

But the Spanish were not the first foreign people to set foot on Southwestern soil — nor were they the first to introduce new technologies, languages, beliefs and ways of life that radically altered the region’s ecology and social structure.

More than a thousand years before the Spanish, a different group of colonists erupted into the Southwest.

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